В Германии, не смотря на снижение потребления пива, количество алкозависимого населения увеличилось на 36%

ПИВО

Германия, которая считается одной из самых пивных наций в мире, седьмой год подряд сокращает производство и потребление пенного напитка, но в то же время  увеличивает количество алкоголиков.

Так, согласно данным немецкого Федерального статистического ведомства в 2013 году немецкие пивовары сварили 946 млн. дал пива, что является наиболее низким показателем со времен объединения страны в 1990 году.

Граждане республики выпили в прошлом году всего 797 млн. дал хмельного, а это на 1,7% меньше, чем в 2012 году.

Однако,  на фоне падения производства и продаж пива количество алкозависимых жителей за этот же период увеличилось на 36% или с полумиллиона до 1,8 млн. человек. Речь идет именно о больных хроническим алкоголизмом.

Еще 1,6 млн. немцев пока не перешли эту границу и не считаются зависимыми от алкоголя. Общее же количество злоупотребляющих спиртным составляет почти 10% от общей численности населения – 7,4 млн. человек.

Согласно исследованиям ВОЗ, Германия занимает 23 место по уровню потребления алкогольных напитков на душу населения (12,81 л/чел. в пересчете на 100%-й алкоголь). Однако медики утверждают, что количество молодежи, попадающей в больницы в связи с алкогольным отравлением, только за последние десять лет увеличилось в два раза – до 25 тыс. человек в год.

Все больше подростков допиваются до комы. Это уже становится обыденным, можно сказать, «модным» делом.

Что показательно , касается это не только молодежи. Все чаще попадают без сознания в больницы пенсионеры. Число стариков, пьющих до коматозного состояния, за последние годы увеличилось в три раза.

Что пьют чаще всего? К сожалению, не только традиционное немецкое пиво. Население все больше переходит на напитки с высоким содержанием алкоголя – водку, шнапс – и коктейли-алкопопсы.

Не стоит забывать и о мере употребления спиртных напитков.

Дозу алкоголя, которую можно принять за один вечер и остаться в зоне так называемого «низкого риска» вреда здоровью, согласно рекомендациям Министерства здравоохранения США составляет одна порция алкоголя в день для женщин и две — для мужчин. Порция в США равна в любом напитке, содержащем 14 грамм чистого спирта. К примеру, это 355 мл пива, или 147 мл вина, или 45 мл крепкого напитка. В Англии – доза выше. Как для мужчин, так и женщин.

Разница между мужской и женской «безопасной» дозой алкоголя вызвана тем, что женский организм содержит меньше воды. Также женским организмом вырабатывается меньше химических элементов, расщепляющих алкоголь. Поэтому из женского организма он выводится медленнее и концентрация алкоголя в крови будет выше, чем в мужском при одинаковом количестве выпитого алкоголя.

В Украине количество алкоголя, которое может считаться «безопасной дозой» не определено. На законодательном уровне упоминается лишь понятие «международной стандартной дозы», т.е. условного количества спирта, которую можно назвать одной дозой или порцией. Она равна 10 г чистого алкоголя в любом напитке.

Олег Усманов

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