Пиво в Финляндии

Пиво в мире Пиво

Достаточно будет сказать, что в финском национальном эпосе Калевала сотворению мира отводится не так много, как, например … пиву. Этот напиток тут известен более 4 тысяч лет, а в древности был обязательным гостем различных языческих праздников.

Всерьез пивной промысел начал набирать обороты в 18 веке, а в 19м еще больше развился. Так, в 1818 году купец, сын русского крестьянина из села Гаврилово, купил на аукционе монопольное право на изготовление пива в Хельсинках. Дата, когда этот купец получил разрешение на изготовление пива, которое сейчас производится под маркой Koff, теперь является неофициальным праздником и Днем финского пива.

Сухой закон

Большое количество пивных сортов производилось до принятия сухого закона в Финляндии. Это и стаут, и лагер, и портер. Введение новых правил приостановило развитие пивной культуры. Однако вследствие введения сухого закона уровень нелегального алкоголя в Финляндии резко увеличился, подпольный рынок стремительно рос и достиг угрожающих размеров – количество конфискованного алкоголя за несколько лет превысило 1 миллион литров. Во избежание еще большего роста контрабанды, сухой закон отменили.

После отмены сухого закона ситуация улучшилась, но не намного. Компания Алко получила право на импорт, розничную продажу пива, его покупку. Все пивоварни, которые действовали до этого времени, остались частыми, но каждая без исключения должна была производить пиво на условиях Алко. За это компания платила им одну и ту же цену, независимо от того, сколько пришлось потратить на производство разных сортов пива.

Частные небольшие пивзаводы

Вскоре маленькие пивные заводы не выдержали конкуренции и сдали позиции, освободив место пивным компаниям побольше. Позже условия были изменены – пивовары должны были заключить договор с государством, которое и по сей день имеет единоличное право, что позволяет распространять крепкие сорта пива.

1969 год стал важным событием в истории пивоварения – теперь на прилавках можно было увидеть пиво крепостью до 4,7% алкоголя.

Большие игроки

В Финляндии существует четыре концерна, которые выпускают пиво, самым крупным из них является Hartwall. Объединившись с русской “Балтикой” и со шведской компанией “Pripps”, они производят несколько сортов финского пива, и другие всемирно известные сорта.

Ни одна сауна в Финляндии не обходится без финского пива. Есть и такие ценители, которые склоняются больше к немецкому или бельгийскому, но отечественное расходится намного быстрей.

Особенностью производства пива есть то, что все сорта варятся на чистейшей финской воде, все компоненты, необходимые для процесса приготовления напитка – экологически чистые, поскольку Финляндия сама выращивает зерновые культуры. Также используется солод, который производит старейшая финская компания под названием «Lahden Polttimo».

Накануне больших праздников на стол подают kalja (финское столовое пиво), а на различных пивных фестивалях в Финляндии можно попробовать не только традиционные сорта пива, но и с чесноком или лимоном, например. Среднестатистический финн выпивает около 84 литров пива в год, и это стандарт для жителей скандинавских стран. Для примера, в Украине потребление пива на душу населения составляет 75 литров в год. И несмотря на  то, что в Финляндии действует запрет на рекламу пива, это никак не влияет на уровень потребления напитка, а любовь к пиву все растет и растет!

Елена Дорошина

Елена Дорошина

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